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Changes in Tear Film Stability After Recovery from Acute Conjunctivitis

Batool A, Kashif M, Kouser S, Haider N.



To evaluate changes in tear film after recovery from acute conjunctivitis and to compare it with normal healthy eyes.


This case- control study involved a total of 60 subjects’ eyes: 45 were those who had recovered from acute conjunctivitis and 15 were subjects of control group. Total duration of study was six months from March 2016 to august 2016 conducted in Madina Teaching Hospital Faisalabad with age range from 20 to 40 years. Tear break up time (TBUT) was measured on both recovered from disease, one month after recovery, and healthy eyes. Non- probability convenient sampling technique was used to determine the sample size. Statistical independent samples t- test was applied to analyze the data at a level of significance 5% by using SPSS version 20.


Out of total 60 patients, 37 (61.67%) were males and 23 (38.33%) were females. Compared with healthy eyes mean[SD] tear film breakup time in cases were 11.46 [7.12] seconds and in controls

14.31 [6.69] seconds respectively. The mean [SD] tear film breakup of recovered eyes(n=45) were found to be 10.31 [6.78] in age 20 to 30 and 31 to 40 years 11.3[6.21] seconds. However, mean [SD] tear film break up time in healthy eyes (n=15) were 14.01[5.78] and 14.13[6.05] in age group 20-30 and 30 to 40 years respectively. The p- value was less than 0.0001 showing significant results.


There was a significant difference in the tear film stability in eyes one month after recovery from acute conjunctivitis as compared to normal healthy eyes. Tear break up time was significantly decreased in recovered (case group) as compare to control group (healthy eyes).

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Problems in Uptake of Low Vision Services in Pakistan.

Ilyas B, Saleem A, Mobeen R.



The main purposes of this study were to determine the barriers in uptake of low vision services; identify improvement needed for low vision rehabilitation services; to aware the people about low vision rehabilitation services and to evaluate the availability of low vision services in Hospital.


It was a cross sectional study. Fifty low vision patients from both genders, ages ranging between 5 to 60 years, were selected through. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect data. Mentally retarded, non-cooperative patients, patients of arthritis and poor motor control were excluded from the study. The study was conducted from March 2012 to December 2012. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20 (SPSS, Inc., IBM Corporation, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis.

Results. 48% patients were satisfied with the information provided by practitioner about low vision devices. 64% patients disagreed and 26% strongly disagreed with that low vision devices are affordable. 92% patients disagreed and 2% strongly disagreed with that low vision devices are accessible. 70% patients agreed that low vision devices lead to the improvement in daily activities. 40% agreed and 60% were uncertain about the satisfaction with the low vision rehabilitation services.

Conclusions. Low vision specialists recommend appropriate low vision devices and counsel patients on how better to deal with their reduced vision in general. The main barriers in the uptake of low vision services are non-affordability and problem in the access to devices.

Comparison of Contrast Sensitivity between Low and High Myopes.

Aslam S, Mobeen R.


Purpose. To compare the contrast sensitivity in low and high myopes.

Methods.  It was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted at College of Ophthalmology and Allied vision sciences. Subjects were selected through non-probability convenient sampling technique. A self-designed proforma was filled at time of examination. 106 patients with myopia, ages ranging between 15-30 years were included. Visual acuity was recorded. The type and degree of myopia was evaluated using both subjective and objective method. Fundus was also evaluated. Contrast sensitivity was measured by pelli robson contrast sensitivity chart.

Results. Of 106 subjects , 8.5% had visual acuities between 1.6-1.3  log MAR units, 44.3% had 1.00-0.80, 22.2% had 0.70-0.50, 24.5% had 0.4-0.2 and only 0.5% patients had 0.1-0.10 log units visual acuities. Percentage of myopic patients having -0.50 to -1.50DS, -1.75 to -2.75DS, -3 to -4DS, -4.25 to -5.25DS, -5.50 to -6.50DS, -6.75 to -7.75DS, -11.75 to -12.75DS, -13.00 to -14.00DS and -15.50 to -16.50DS were  21.7%, 21.7%, 4.7%, 1.9%, 38.7%, 6.6%, 0.9%,2.8% and 0.9% respectively. Half of the subjects had low myopia while remaining had high myopia. Patients with low myopia had a better contrast sensitivity compared to high myopia. (P=0.00) Those with high myopia demonstrated better contrast sensitivity while wearing there correction. (P=0.00)

Conclusion. Low myopes had good contrast with and without spectacles. Without optical correction, high myopes had poor contrast sensitivity which was improved by using their optical correction. However, low myopes had better contrast as compared to high myopes both with and without correction.